2012

 

Colóquio Internacional Ciência nos Trópicos: olhares sobre o passado, perspectivas de futuro
Arquivo Histórico Ultramarino (IICT) e no CDI – Centro de Documentação e Informação (IICT),
Lisboa, 5-7 Janeiro 2012

Isabel Serra e Elisa Maia, O percurso de Bragança Gil na medicina tropical
Resumo  (clique para ver resumo)


O PERCURSO DE BRAGANÇA GIL NA MEDICINA TROPICAL
Isabel Serra e Elisa Maia

Universidade de Lisboa

 

Uma das primeiras “aplicações pacíficas” da energia nuclear diz respeito à utilização de isótopos radioactivos em diversos campos de actividade, em particular na saúde. Os isótopos radioactivos começaram a ser largamente usados a seguir à II Guerra Mundial e acabaram por se tornar indispensáveis no diagnóstico e na terapêutica de inúmeras doenças.
Fernando Bragança Gil (1927-2009), que dedicou grande parte da vida científica à física nuclear, e se tornou conhecido do público como Director do Museu de Ciência da Universidade de Lisboa, começou a sua carreira científica no Laboratório de Radioisótopos da Junta de Investigações do Ultramar, onde trabalhou cerca de dez anos. Durante esse período publicou, a partir de 1956, e durante os dez anos seguintes, nos Anais do Instituto de Medicina Tropical, ou noutras revistas, cerca de vinte trabalhos sobre a aplicação dos radioisótopos à medicina, em particular à medicina tropical.
Nesta comunicação será apresentado o percurso daquele investigador e Professor nesta área de investigação aplicada. Analisaremos a questão do ponto de vista social e institucional, em particular o do impacto da utilização das técnicas nucleares na medicina tropical. Abordaremos também os aspectos de desenvolvimento da carreira científica de Bragança Gil em particular, o papel formativo que as tecnologias relativas à utilização de isótopos tiveram na sua carreira científica posterior.

Agradecimentos:
Este trabalho foi financiado pelo Projecto PTDC/81550/HCT/2006, FCT, Portugal.

 

 2011

 

Congresso Luso-Brasileiro de História das Ciências Coimbra,
26-29 Outubro de 2011

Isabel Serra, "O discurso sobre as ciências em Portugal a partir dos finais do século XIX"
Resumo – Livro de Resumos, p. 106  
(clique para ver resumo)


O DISCURSO SOBRE AS CIÊNCIAS EM PORTUGAL
A PARTIR DOS FINAIS DO SÉCULO XIX
Isabel Serra

Centro de Filosofia das Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa

 

Palavras chave: Ciência em Portugal, séculos XIX e XX; As "duas culturas"; Ciência nacional e ciência estrangeira

 

A ciência em Portugal no século XIX não conseguiu acompanhar o ritmo de desenvolvimento europeu, afirmando-se, pode dizer-se, mais pelo discurso do que pela acção. De facto, enquanto tentavam implementar a ciência em moldes modernos e internacionais, e até, nalguns casos, em vez de tal acção, muitos professores e investigadores pronunciaram-se sobre os valores associados à ciência. Esse tipo de discurso tornou-se aliás comum durante o século XX, cristalizando-se à volta da polémica sobre as "duas culturas", encetada por C. P. Snow. Mas, em Portugal, a argumentação apoiada nos valores da ciência
Opunha-se a uma outra – a da defesa dos valores da cultura nacional, tradicionalmente ligada a certas áreas do conhecimento que só num passado longínquo haviam comungado com as ciências exactas. Durante o regime do Estado Novo o confronto entre diferentes valores culturais assume um carácter político, tendo alguns dos discursos de cientistas em favor da ciência um tom claramente militante. O discurso oficial, por sua vez, simulando ignorar tais argumentos, afirma, ao mesmo tempo, a existência de uma "ciência nacional".
Nesta comunicação ilustraremos a questão com recurso às palavras e textos produzidos por diversos cientistas e responsáveis institucionais durante os finais do século XIX e a primeira metade do século XX.

 

Agradecimentos:

Este trabalho foi financiado pelo Projecto PTDC/81550/HCT/2006, FCT, Portugal.

 

 

III International Symposium of AMONET – Women, Science and Globalization
Fundação Gulbenkian, Lisboa, 17-18 Outubro de 2011

Francisca Viegas, Isabel Serra, Elisa Maia, Manuela Brotas de Carvalho,
"The scientific life of Marieta da Silveira"

Resumo – Book of Abstracts, p. 19  
(clique para ver resumo)


THE SCIENTIFIC LIFE OF MARIETA DA SILVEIRA
Francisca Viegas, Isabel Serra, Elisa Maia, Manuela Brotas de Carvalho

Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal

 

Marieta da Silveira (1917-2004) was born in the island of Pico, in Azores, and came to Lisbon to attend High School, that she finished in 1937. In 1941 she got a degree in Physics and Chemistry at the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon, with excellent classification. Although having been invited as teaching assistant of the Chemistry Section of the Faculty in 1942, she could not find there the minimum conditions to do scientific research and prepare a PhD thesis, and so she approached Prof. Cyrillo Soares, the Director of the Centre for Studies in Physics, annex to the Laboratory of Physics of the Faculty, where she was immediately accepted as doctoral student, though still teaching practical courses in the chemistry laboratory.  The material conditions of the Centre were poor, and indeed most equipment had to be built up by the researchers themselves, sometimes with pieces borrowed from other laboratories. But the scientific/intellectual environment was outstanding, and the quality of the senior researchers and the enthusiasm they also transmitted to younger researchers, more than compensated the difficulties that had to be overcome. Indeed, Manuel Valadares, Aurélio Marques da Silva e Armando Gibert, the senior researchers of the Centre, had obtained their PhD in high level research centers abroad, in Paris, in the Curie Laboratory (Valadares and Marques da Silva) and in Zurich (Gibert), and they all pursued their research in Lisbon in the field of radioactivity and nuclear physics, publishing internationally recognized results. Marieta da Silveira, with the supervision of Marques da Silva, got her PhD in 1945 with a thesis on the contribution to the study of the radiations of the complex of uranium X, where she proposed the hypothesis of spontaneous emission of neutrons. It is worth mentioning that Marieta's work was published in Portugaliae Physica and was reported by Robert T. Beyer in Foundations of Nuclear Physics in 1947. Later on, in 1947, for political reasons, 21 professors and researchers of Portuguese Universities were dismissed by Salazar. Among them there were the senior researchers of the Center, who had to leave the teaching and research activity at the University, and after that the scientific activity of the Centre decayed significantly.  Marieta was not dismissed, but her research carrier was seriously affected, and finally she left the Center. In spite of later collaborations with Kurt Jacobsohn (1950-1952) in researches on effects of radiation on some enzymatic systems and also with Torre de Assunção and Francisco Mendes (1956-1958) in studies on radioactive minerals, and much later with Miranda and Vernois (1969-1970), in studies on coordination chemistry, she never got real support for research, and her carrier never reached the full amplitude that could be expected from her promising beginnings. The academic carrier also suffered due to political reasons, as she was passed over in promotions.
On the contrary, as a teacher, her qualities were fully recognized, in particular by her students. Her remarkable intelligence, scientific competence, didactic approach and extreme humanity made her, as said in many testimonies of former students, "…the best teacher I ever had…".

 

 

Symposium of the Commission of History of Modern Chemistry of the IUHPS – Renewing the Heritage of Chemistry in the 21st Century: Conversations on the Preservation, Presentation and Utilization of Sources, Sites and Artifacts
Paris, 21-24 Junho 2011

Isabel Serra et Elisa Maia, "Les archives Curie et la recherche sur la radioactivité au Portugal"
Resumo: Abstracts/Résumés, p. 41  
(clique para ver resumo)


LES ARCHIVES CURIE ET LA RECHERCHE SUR LA RADIOACTIVITÉ
AU PORTUGAL
Isabel Serra et Elisa Maia

Université de Lisbonne, Lisbonne, Portugal

 

La radioactivité fut un domaine scientifique d'élection au Portugal, depuis son émergence. En effet, des études de radioactivité des eaux, auxquelles a participé Pierre Curie, ont été réalisées systématiquement dès le début du vingtième siècle. La recherche fondamentale dans le domaine est aussi liée au Laboratoire Curie, mais cette fois-ci d'une manière bien plus étroite, étant donné que les premiers chercheurs portugais en radioactivité ont presque tous fait leur formation avec Marie Curie, Irène Curie et Frédéric Joliot.
Dans les Archives Curie, on peut rencontrer bien préservés des documents relatifs aux séjours des chercheurs portugais au laboratoire Curie. On y trouve des lettres, des rapports, ainsi que des références et des renseignements concernant leurs travaux scientifiques, ou encore de la correspondance sur des sujets de recherche entre Marie Curie et les Portugais.
Tous ces documents permettent de suivre le trajet de ces chercheurs dans une période fondamentale pour leur carrière et aussi pour les travaux qu'ils ont développés ensuite au Portugal. Ces éléments ont contribué à éclaircir plusieurs aspects de l'histoire des sciences au Portugal dans la première moitié du vingtième siècle et aussi à mieux comprendre la dynamique de transfert des connaissances scientifiques entre centre et périphérie.

 

Remerciements
Nous remercions les Archives Curie qui ont facilité notre accès à la documentation pertinente. Ce travail de recherche a été financé par le Projet PTDC/HCT/81550 de la FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia).

 

Références

Serra, I., Maia,E.,  Santos, and Viegas, F., (2003), "Radioactivity in the Portuguese Journal of Chemistry in the early 20th Century", Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on the History of Chemistry, Budapest, 71-77.
Serra, I. and Peiriço N., (2006), "Portuguese chemists and radioactive minerals", in Isabel Malaquias, Ernst Homburg, M. Elvira Callapez (ed.), Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on History of Chemistry: Chemistry, Technology and Society, Lisbon, Sociedade Portuguesa de Química, 653-660.



 2010

 

4th International Conference of the European Society for the History of Science (ESHS) - The Circulation of Science and Technology
Barcelona, 18-20 Novembro 2010

Simpósio S12, "The Development of New Scientific Ideas in Portugal and Other Peripheral Countries: Scientists, Laboratories, Instruments and Texts in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries"
Resumo: Book of Abstracts, p. 52  
(clique para ver resumo)


S12 THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW SCIENTIFIC IDEAS IN PORTUGAL AND OTHER
PERIPHERAL COUNTRIES: SCIENTISTS, LABORATORIES, INSTRUMENTS AND
TEXTS IN THE NINETEENTH AND TWENTIETH CENTURIES


Coordinated by
Isabel Serra (Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal)
Elisa Maia (Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal)
Francisca Viegas (Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal)

Chaired by
Nuno Marques Peiriço (Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal)
Elisa Maia (Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal)
Francisca Viegas (Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal)

 

In nineteenth century science has undergone an extraordinary development from which resulted many applications. University teaching followed that development in different ways in the several European countries. In peripheral countries, as Portugal, some professors played a central role in that development, bringing in new ideas, new instruments, and new techniques and producing scientific and didactic texts in native languages. In this process, the creation and equipment of laboratories was fundamental to assure the modernization of the University and the development of scientific research.
In this symposium we intend to sketch an overview of this process with particular focus in the so called peripheral countries, by the study of scientists, as well as laboratories, instruments and texts that were relevant for the implementation of new ideas and practices in teaching and research during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
We would like to emphasize that in Portugal, as probably in other countries, some University Professors had a main role in the process of transfer of scientific knowledge.

 

Acnowledgments:
Work financed by Project PTDC/81550/HCT/2006, FCT, Portugal.

 

Nuno Peiriço, "Kurt Jacobsohn and Manuel Valadares. Two Unusual Teachers and Researchers of the Polytechnic School/Faculty of Sciences"
Resumo: Book of Abstracts, p. 52  
(clique para ver resumo)


KURT JACOBSOHN AND MANUEL VALADARES: TWO UNUSUAL TEACHERS AND RESEARCHERS OF THE POLYTECHNIC SCHOOL/FACULTY OF SCIENCES
Nuno Marques Peiriço

University of Lisbon, Portugal

 

In 1929 Kurt Jacobsohn (1904-1991), at 25 years old, leaves the Kaiser Wilhem Institute fur Biochemie to work at the Institute Rocha Cabral in Lisbon where he developed his research activity as enzymologist and in the study of metabolic reactions and, mainly those related with Krebs Cycle. In 1935 Kurt Jacobsohn got Portuguese nationality and was invited to held the position of Professor of Organic Chemistry and Medical Chemistry at the University of Lisbon, position that he kept for forty years. At the University, Kurt Jacobsohn developed efforts to create the course of Biochemistry what happened only after his jubilation with the coordination of Professor Ruy Pinto, one of his former students.
In the same year, 1929 with the same age, Manuel Valadares (1904-1982) leaves Lisbon to do his PhD at the Curie Laboratory in Paris with Marie Curie.
In 1934 he returns to Portugal to teach Medical Physics at the University of Lisbon. His career as professor in Portugal was drastically interrupted in 1947, for political reasons.
These researchers, although in very different areas, carried out and coordinated research of international standard, what was unusual in Portugal by that time. Having brought from abroad updated scientific knowledge, they both introduced new ideas in the teaching in the medical course, Jacobsohn in biochemistry and Valadares in the field of the applications of the radiations.
In spite of the difficulties due to the scientific stagnation of the country in this period each one succeeded in bringing together researchers and assistants. Some of them later developed their own scientific careers, in scientific research and university teaching.

 

Acnowledgments:
Work financed by Project PTDC/81550/HCT/2006, FCT, Portugal.

 

Francisca Viegas, "Scientific Life of Marieta da Silveira, Professor of the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon"
Resumo: Book of Abstracts, p. 53  
(clique para ver resumo)


SCIENTIFIC LIFE OF MARIETA DA SILVEIRA,
PROFESSOR OF THE FACULTY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF LISBON
Francisca Viegas

Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal

 

Marieta da Silveira (1917-2004) was born in the one of the Azores islands, and come to Lisbon where she graduated in physics and chemistry of the Faculty of Sciences.
She started research in the field of nuclear science in the Center for Studies in Physics where she studied the absorption of the Uranium X radiation. The hypothesis of the existence of natural radioactivity by spontaneous emission of neutrons was one of her results, published in Portugaliae Physica. She obtained her PhD in 1945 and she continued working in the Centre until 1947, when the senior researchers were expelled from the University for political reasons. The same political reasons led to a situation where she herself, although not expelled, was also segregated. Some years later she started working with geologists studying radioactive minerals doing research work where Portuguese uranium minerals, including those originated in the Portuguese colonies, are analysed. This work was more ambitious than the previous articles published on the first half of the century on the same theme – their authors were aware they were doing scientific research.
Marieta da Siveira's research work was of great quality and some of her publications are mentioned in international documents of history of science (BEYER, R. T., Foundations of Nuclear Physics, New York, Dover Publications Inc., 1949). Besides these research activities she was also an outstanding teacher.

 

Acnowledgments:

Work financed by Project PTDC/81550/HCT/2006, FCT, Portugal.

 

M. Carmo Elvas, Marília Peres, Sara Carvalho, "Making Science Cooler: Carré's Apparatus"
Resumo: Book of Abstracts, p. 54  
(clique para ver resumo)


MAKING SCIENCE COOLER: CARRÉ'S APPARATUS
Maria do Carmo Elvas, Isabel Marília Peres, Sara Carvalho

University of Lisbon, Portugal

 

The need of refrigeration in the laboratory is not a new idea, and this paper intends to make a tour through its history in the 19th century, where one of first attempts to make things cooler was created by the Carré brothers. The aim is to explore the types of Carré's Apparatus, the techniques used in it and study their evolution and improvement. This work will focus mostly in the instrument's collection of the Museum of Science of the University of Lisbon, which own several exemplars of the Carré Apparatus and improved versions of it, including one that belonged to Portuguese Royalty. Our approach tries to put back these objects in their real place in the 19th century lab work, corroborating equipment with archival sources by establishing links between equipment and photographs, reports, curricula, chemistry compendia, textbooks written by the professors, where certain experimental settings are described and depicted, invoices and other administration papers, e.g. the 1854 inventory, among other archival and bibliographical sources. The 19th century 'Laboratorio Chimico' of the Polytechnic School (1837-1911), integrated in the Museum of Science of the University of Lisbon suffered a restoration and a musealization work (2000-2006) as well as a part of the museum's heritage, where a Ferdinand Carré's apparatus is included . This historical space and the pertaining collection allows us to go back to the nineteen century scientific practice at the Lisbon Polytechnic School and breathe the its atmosphere in a golden period.
Isabel Marilia Peres and Sara Carvalho are members of the project "Cientistas, Laboratorios e Instrumentacao Cientifica de Fisica e Quimica na Escola Politecnica/ Faculdade de Ciencias de Lisboa" (PTDC/HCT/81550/2006) funded by FCT, Portugal.

 

Bibliography:
Julio Maximo de Oliveira Pimentel, Licoes de Chymica Geral e suas principaes applicacoes, Tomo Primeiro, Lisboa, 1850.
Adriano Augusto de Pina Vidal, Carlos Augusto Moraes D'Almeida, Curso de Physica da Escola Polytechnica, Parte IV, Calor, Typografia da Academia
Real das Sciencias, Lisboa, 1893.
Max Kohl A. G., Physical Apparatus, Price List No. 50, vols II and III.
A.J. Wallis-Tayler, Refrigerating and Ice-Making Machinery, Crosby Lockwood and Son, London, 1896.

 

Acnowledgments:

Work financed by Project PTDC/81550/HCT/2006, FCT, Portugal.

 

M.  Luísa Alves, "Regulations of the Mineral Chemistry Laboratory of the Politechnic School of Lisbon in 1889"
Resumo: Book of Abstracts, p. 55  
(clique para ver resumo)


REGULATIONS OF THE MINERAL CHEMISTRY LABORATORY
OF THE POLITECHNIC SCHOOL OF LISBON IN 1889
Maria Luisa Cordeiro Rolo Laborinho dos Santos Alves

 Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal

 

Built "with the thought of filling the lack, in Lisbon, of (...) an establishment where at least the rudiments of natural sciences could be taught", the Polytechnic School of Lisbon appears as a space where science teaching reveals specific characteristics, and laboratory practice, in spite of several difficulties, is progressively introduced as an important factor in the teaching and learning process.
The works carried out in the laboratory of 6th course – General Chemistry and Notions of its main Applications to Arts – that transformed the old laboratory in the magnificent Mineral Chemistry Laboratory, constituted a landmark in the evolution of the experimental teaching in our country.
The Director of the Laboratory, Professor Jose Julio Bettencout Rodrigues wrote very detailed regulations for the work in this laboratory that we will analyze in this communication. In his "Projecto sumario de Regulamento dos Trabalhos e Servicos do Laboratorio de Chimica Mineral da Escola Polytechnica de Lisboa" in 1889/1890 he specifies the rules related to the management of the laboratory, like the opening hours in different days of the year timetable, as well as some elementary safety rules. He also details the process of assessment of students. These regulations for the practical work in the laboratory are very complete, as compared to those of other laboratories at that time. They reflect not only concerns for the good management of the laboratory, but also pedagogical concerns related to the teaching and learning of good practice of the students and are an important conquest in science education in Portugal. The laboratorial practice is gradually an important agent in the process of teaching learning, that deserves be remembered.

 

Acnowledgments:
Work financed by Project PTDC/81550/HCT/2006, FCT, Portugal.

 

Sandra Lopes, Isabel Cruz, "Laboratory Hands" once more and the Polytechnic School of Lisbon, 1837 -1911"
Resumo: Book of Abstracts, p. 55  
(clique para ver resumo)


"LABORATORY HANDS" ONCE MORE

AND THE POLYTECHNIC SCHOOL OF LISBON,1837 - 1911
Sandra Lopes, Isabel Cruz

Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal

 

In two previous papers presented at the 6th International Conference on History of Chemistry, held in 2007 at Leuven, and 7th International Conference on History of Chemistry, held in 2009 at Sopron (Hungary) we brought up some facts regarding the personality identification of the chemistry preparers in some teaching institutions in Portugal, namely in the Polytechnic School of Lisbon. In those papers we also endeavoured to distinguish aspects of the professional evolution of the mentioned individuals.
In spite of being basically employed to assist the lecturer and relieve him of the so called minor preparatory tasks necessary for the practical classes and investigation, the laboratory hand would, when needed, alternate between a mere laboratory assistant helper to practically an assistant lecturer. Yet, it is clear that there was a barrier that prevented lecturer and hand – each with a totally independent professional situation – from being mistaken one for the other.
New significant data provided by the intensive research done in Polytechnic School archive documentation as well as in other exterior sources, related to the current CICTSUL project, "Scientists, laboratories and scientific instrumentation in the Polytechnic School of Lisbon" (later to become Faculty of Sciences), lead us to the necessity of delving deep into this issue. Therefore, the present work proposal approaches again the question of that specific professional area – the laboratory hand - and his role in the development of Chemistry teaching in Portugal, using the Polytechnic School of Lisbon as a case study. The objective is to outline with more accuracy the general points of evolution within the perspective of their work with the Chemistry lecturer, professor or investigator, and thus provide a better understanding of the historic process of Chemistry and its development in the educational institutions of the XIX century.


References

Cruz, Isabel (2001) – Preparadores de Quimica da Escola Politecnica (1837 - 1856). "Atalaia – Intermundos", N.os 10 e 11;
Cruz, Isabel; Lopes, Sandra (2008) - Chemistry preparers in Portugal in the nineteenth century: some aspects of their evolution. In Jose Ramon Bertomeu-Sanchez, Duncan Thorburn Burns, Brigitte Van Tiggelen (eds.) – Proceedings. 6th International Conference on History of Chemistry, EuCheMS, "Neighbours and territories: the evolving identity of chemistry". Louvain, Memosciences asbl;
Cruz, Isabel; Lopes, Sandra; Peres, Marilia (2009) - ≪Laboratory hands≫ and the teaching of chemistry, in the Polytechnic School of Lisbon (1837 – 1911), poster presented at the EuCheMS 7th International Conference on History of Chemistry, "Consumers and Experts: the Uses of Chemistry (and Alchemy)", Sopron (Hungary), 2nd – 5th August

 

Acnowledgments:
Work financed by Project PTDC/81550/HCT/2006, FCT, Portugal.

 

Isabel Serra, "Physics in Portugal in the Transition to the Republic (1910). The Role of the Polytechnic School / Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon"
Resumo: Book of Abstracts, p. 57  
(clique para ver resumo)


PHYSICS IN PORTUGAL IN THE TRANSITION TO THE REPUBLIC (1910):
THE ROLE OF THE POLYTECHNIC SCHOOL/FACULTY OF SCIENCES
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF LISBON
Isabel Serra

University of Lisbon, Portugal

 

During the nineteenth century, physics had been brought to a high degree of development and, at the end of that century, a new domain was born – microphysics. The rapid advances in physics accentuated the peripheral position of Portuguese scientific research, and science in general. Whereas in some European countries science was undergoing a great development, the update of scientific knowledge was not a priority in Portuguese society at the time, even in the universities.
The republican revolution that occurred in Portugal in 1910 led to some changes in thinking about priorities in education and science. In 1911, the diploma which created the Universities of Lisbon and of Oporto clearly put forward scientific research as a goal. However, in spite of the existence of the new Universities and the new legislation, the institutionalization of research came much later. Scientific activity was developed mainly on applied fields in an individual way. The first group working in fundamental physics began its activity in the University of Lisbon only in the thirties.
Meanwhile, from the end of the nineteenth century, some Professors tried to update and transmit their knowledge about the new physics. Standing out among them was the Professor of physics of the Polytechnic School/Faculty of Sciences, Joao de Almeida Lima (1859-1930). In this communication, the work of Almeida Lima and the others Professors of the Polytechnic School/Faculty of Sciences, as well as the subjects they studied, will be described in order to explain their role in spreading the new scientific ideas of the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century.

 

Acnowledgments:
Work financed by Project PTDC/81550/HCT/2006, FCT, Portugal.

 

Elisa Maia, Isabel Serra, Ricardo Martins, "Historical Experiments Revisited: A Didactical Resource for Secondary School Teaching", (Simpósio S03)
Resumo: Book of Abstracts, p.   
(clique para ver resumo)


HISTORICAL EXPERIMENTS REVISITED: A DIDACTICAL RESOURCE
FOR SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHING
Maria Elisa Maia, Isabel Serra, Ricardo Martins

University of Lisbon, Portugal

 

The reproduction of historical experiments is a recent trend in historical research, carried rigorously by research groups who intend to reproduce the conditions in which original experiments took place and to compare the results obtained with those referred by original papers. In these reproductions, original equipment or specially manufactured copies are used.
This idea can be used with didactic purposes, and some experiments can be adapted in order to be performed by students in classes, or demonstrated by teachers, for security reasons. The methodology is alike, but the equipment and conditions, although as similar as possible to that of the original experiment, do not need to be its exact reproduction, as this may be difficult and/or expensive.
The access to original papers is becoming easier every day, as many libraries and archives are digitalizing large amounts of documents made available in the internet.
An example of an experiment extremely relevant in the development of the physics and chemistry in the beginnings of the twentieth century is the discovery of radioactivity by Henry Becquerel in 1896. Documentation for this experiment is available in the internet and the protocol is easy to replicate in a secondary school context. This experiment opens perspectives for debates with students, not only scientific but ethic and related to technology and society.
In this communication we present a teaching module, including relevant information for teachers and an activity for students on the discovery of radioactivity, as well as suggestions for extensions of the study of the topic. This experiment is included in a project that intends to introduce history of science in secondary schools in Portugal.

 

Acnowledgments:
Work financed by Project PTDC/81550/HCT/2006, FCT, Portugal.

 

 

III Encontro HIPST – History and Philosophy in Science Teaching, Projecto Europeu - 7.º Programa Quadro
Lisboa, 9 de Setembro de 2010

Isabel Serra, "As leis da Natureza no Ensino Secundário"
Resumo   
(clique para ver resumo)


AS LEIS DA NATUREZA NO ENSINO SECUNDÁRIO
Isabel Serra

Centro de Filosofia das Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa

 

A expressão "leis da natureza" fazia parte da linguagem da ciência até há cerca de cem anos. A linguagem evoluiu e actualmente, só no contexto da história e da filosofia das ciências tal termo é referido. Apesar de desactualizada, a dita expressão contém uma riqueza que talvez valha a pena rentabilizar no ensino. Em vez de ser ignorada, como a herança contida nos baús de uma velha avó, poderia ser reciclada tendo em vista a apresentação de ideias fundamentais na ciência.
A ideia de "leis da natureza", apesar de materializada por uma expressão fora de moda, representa um papel central, não só nas teorias, mas também na prática científica. Um teórico, ao procurar explicar algum fenómeno, ou um conjunto de factos, elabora uma teoria que pode conter uma ou várias "leis". Um experimentador, quando detecta um acontecimento, ao procurar estabelecer as possibilidades e as condições da sua ocorrência, está a tentar elaborar uma "lei", mesmo que não use essa linguagem. Tanto o teórico como o experimentador procuram generalizar, ou seja, traçar um quadro o mais geral possível dos fenómenos e das suas causas. A presença constante, mas muitas vezes sub-reptícia, da generalização, pode ser diagnosticada através da análise do discurso científico. De facto, ele é caracterizado por uma abundância de termos e de símbolos, que traduzem esses processos de generalização, como por exemplo, "tabelas", "gráficos", "modelos", "estruturas".
Do ponto de vista epistemológico, a fase de generalização é essencial na ciência e, evidentemente, deve ser comunicada no seu ensino. Sem generalização nem sequer há conhecimento científico. O estudo da história das ciências permite dar relevo a essa procura incessante de generalização que tem caracterizado a prática científica na cultura ocidental. Não podendo a ciência ser vista como um conjunto de dados, de factos e de processos, não deve também ser ensinada como tal, por mais riqueza e diversidade que eles contenham. Nesse sentido, a história e a filosofia das ciências são instrumentos privilegiados na procura e aquisição de significado do grande número de dados que os nossos alunos do secundário são obrigados a apreender.
Nesta apresentação serão referidos alguns aspectos da presença das leis da natureza no ensino, tendo como ponto de partida as observações atrás formuladas e recorrendo a exemplos retirados manuais escolares de diversas disciplinas do 11º ano. Serão destacados domínios, casos e autores para os quais a questão "leis da natureza", encarada no seu sentido global, continua a ter actualidade, tanto na ciência como no ensino.


Agradecimentos:

Este trabalho foi financiado pelo Projecto PTDC/81550/HCT/2006, FCT, Portugal.

 

 2009

 

XIII Encontro Nacional de Educação em Ciências (XIII ENEC) - Educação e Formação: Ciência, Cultura e Cidadania (XIII ENEC),
Castelo Branco, 24-26 Setembro 2009

Elisa Maia, Isabel Serra, Francisca Viegas, "Ensino da Radioactividade e História das Ciências"
Resumo: http://enec2009.ese.ipcb.pt/simposios_de_comunicacoes_convidadas.htm#cc1  
(clique para ver resumo)


O ENSINO DA RADIOACTIVIDADE E A HISTÓRIA DAS CIÊNCIAS
Maria Elisa Maia. Isabel Serra, Francisca Viegas

Universidade de Lisboa

 

 As reformas curriculares recentes em diversos países preconizam a introdução de tópicos de História das Ciências integrados no ensino das disciplinas científicas. Porém, os temas de História das Ciências apresentados são, em geral, poucos e desenvolvidos de forma superficial. Assim, em programas e em manuais escolares encontram-se referências biográficas a alguns cientistas considerados importantes ou menções a algumas descobertas relevantes, mas a evolução, ao longo dos tempos, dos conceitos fundamentais que estruturam as diferentes áreas científicas é negligenciada. Os conteúdos científicos são quase sempre apresentados aos alunos como um conjunto de factos e teorias explicativas perfeitamente estabelecido e incontroverso, e não como um longo e discutido processo de construção, com avanços e recuos, com caminhos alternativos e pontos de viragem. Também não há habitualmente referências às interligações entre a evolução das Ciências e desenvolvimento social e económico, num contexto histórico.
A descoberta da radioactividade, juntamente com a dos raios X e do electrão, nos últimos anos do século XIX, determinaram significativamente a evolução subsequente da Física e da Química. Além disso, estes temas foram objecto de investigação fundamental de vários cientistas portugueses que, nas décadas de 30 e 40 chegaram a ter relevância internacional. No entanto o ensino da radioactividade não tem tido o destaque merecido.
Nesta comunicação referem-se módulos didácticos, construídos no sentido de colmatar essas falhas. Esses módulos apresentam eventualmente vertentes experimentais, com possível reconstituição histórica, contendo actividades relativas à descoberta e a trabalhos sobre radioactividade, e a outros tópicos, nomeadamente raios X e descargas em gases.

 

Agradecimentos:

Este trabalho foi financiado pelo Projecto PTDC/81550/HCT/2006, FCT, Portugal.
 

 

II Encontro HIPST - History and Philosophy in Science Teaching Projecto Europeu - 7.º Programa Quadro Symposium on the History of Science and Education
Lisboa, Setembro de 2009

Isabel Serra e Elisa Maia, "Abordagem histórica e filosófica no ensino das radiações "
Resumo  
(clique para ver resumo)


ABORDAGEM HISTÓRICA E FILOSÓFICA
NO ENSINO DAS RADIAÇÕES
Isabel Serra, Elisa Maia

Universidade de Lisboa


Nos finais do século XIX sucederam-se, em anos consecutivos, três descobertas de grande importância na ciência - a dos raios X (1895), a da radioactividade (1896) e a do electrão (1897). Estes acontecimentos e as suas consequências não só originaram profundas transformações no conhecimento da matéria como se viriam a revelar de enorme impacto social, pelas suas aplicações.
Raios X e radioactividade, radiações desconhecidas até uma certa etapa na história e também na aprendizagem, constituem o ponto de partida de uma nova físico-química. O seu ensino, por vezes problemático, ganhará mais sentido e clareza através da presença da história das ciências na apresentação das matérias. Também a filosofia das ciências pode interferir de forma positiva com a aprendizagem das novas física e química das radiações, tanto do ponto de vista epistemológico como através de questões de natureza ética.
Para pôr em evidência as potencialidades do papel da história e da filosofia das ciências no ensino das radiações serão apresentados alguns exemplos. Nos exemplos escolhidos procura-se distinguir os aspectos históricos, capazes de proporcionar uma perspectiva sobre as alterações ocorridas na física e na química, e os aspectos relacionados com a filosofia das ciências.
Os casos tratados incluirão também a ciência desenvolvida em Portugal onde a radioactividade e as suas aplicações tiveram um desenvolvimento digno de ser assinalado pela história das ciências.
Os aspectos de divulgação da ciência da radioactividade serão também focados, já que também foram relevantes no quadro do desenvolvimento da ciência no nosso país.


Agradecimentos:
Este trabalho foi financiado pelo Projecto PTDC/81550/HCT/2006, FCT, Portugal.

 

 

7th International Conference on the History of Chemistry (7th ICHC) – Consumers and Experts: the uses of Chemistry (and Alchemy)
Sopron, Hungria, 2-5 de Agosto de 2009

Isabel Cruz & Sandra Lopes, "Chemistry "Laboratory Hands" in Portugal in the Nineteenth Century: Aspects of an Evolution"
Resumo  
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CHEMISTRY "LABORATORY HANDS" IN PORTUGAL IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY: ASPECTS OF AN EVOLUTION
Isabel Cruz & Sandra Lopes
University of Lisbon, Portugal

 

This communication approaches the question of a specific professional area (so to speak) –the laboratory hand– and his role in the development of Chemistry and the teaching of the subject in Portugal. The objective is to outline the general points of evolution within the perspective of their work with the Chemistry lecturer, professor or investigator, and thus provide a better understanding of the historic process of Chemistry and its development in the educational institutions of the XIX century.
The text "Preparadores de Química da Escola Politécnica (1837-1856)", already showed that these "laboratory collaborators" were receiving very little recognition. Certain official sources (yearly publications, reports and directives) plus archived documentation however provides information in a number of cases as to who the hands were, the regulations and the tasks related to their work in the laboratory and makes it possible to evaluate aspects of their role in the field of Chemistry in Portugal.

 

Acnowledgments:
Work financed by Project PTDC/81550/HCT/2006, FCT, Portugal.


 

 

XXIII International Congress of History of Science and Technology (XXIII ICHST) - Ideas and Instruments in Social Context
Budapeste, 28 Julho-2 de Agosto de 2009

Sara Carvalho, "Liebig's Kaliapparat: a case study on the material culture of chemistry"
Resumo:  Book of abstracts, p. 717  
(clique para ver resumo)


LIEBIG'S KALIAPPARAT: A CASE STUDY ON THE MATERIAL CULTURE OF CHEMISTRY
Sara Carvalho

University of Lisbon, Portugal


Justus von Liebig has always been recognized for his work in several fields such as organic analysis, agricultural and animal chemistry, experimental chemical education, industrial chemistry and chemical technology. In the later, one of his most important achievements was a glass apparatus used in combustion analysis: the Kaliapparat.
Based on one of Lavoisier's combustion apparatus, Liebig's creation, a five bulb piece of glassware, became an instrument of major importance in organic analysis. With it, chemists were able to transform an extremely complex and long experiment into a simple and routine operation. This increment in speed made it possible for organic chemistry itself to take a giant leap forward.
This paper intends to expose the contribution of Liebig's apparatus, making a parallel with the precedent methods and understanding the development of this combustion device in order to trace its history, hence making society aware that are small steps such as these that have led to chemistry as it is known and taught nowadays. 


References:
Annalen der Physik und Chemie (1831) 21, 1-43
BROCK, William H. (1992), The Fontana History of Chemistry, Fontana Press, London.
BROOKE, John H. (1971), Organic Synthesis and the Unification of Chemistry, British Journal for the History of Science 5, 363-392.
PARTINGTON, J. R. (1961), A History of Chemistry, Macmillan, London.

 

Acnowledgments:
Work financed by Project PTDC/81550/HCT/2006, FCT, Portugal.

 

Elisa Maia, "The mineral chemistry laboratory of the Polytechnic School of Lisbon and the great 19th century chemistry laboratories in Europe"
Resumo:  Book of abstracts, p. 495  
(clique para ver resumo)


THE MINERAL CHEMISTRY LABORATORY OF THE POLYTECHNIC SCHOOL OF LISBON AND THE GREAT 19TH CENTURY CHEMISTRY LABORATORIES IN EUROPE
Elisa Maia1, Ricardo Pestana2

1Universidade de Lisboa, 2IADE, Portugal

 

In spite of some exceptions, in most countries, almost until the middle of the 19th century, experimentation was carried out by researchers and professors, but not by students, that only watched demonstrations. The classes were performed in large amphitheatres having preparation laboratories connected to them.
The change in methodology in the teaching of Chemistry implied changes in the facilities, and so, in many important universities, large laboratories were built, in order to provide space for practical classes with large number of students.
The experiments, at that time, were carried out with large amounts of chemicals and the concerns for safety were often not strict. As many experiments produced noxious or unpleasant compounds, with bad smell, it was considered important to have large rooms, usually also very high. As this was not enough, the systems of ventilation also had to be improved.
In the large Encyclopaedia of Fremy (1882) two volumes are dedicated to the great laboratories in Europe. The laboratory of the Polytechnic School in Lisbon is not included in the book as at the time of this publication it was not very impressive. However, after reformation it was visited by A.W. von Hoffman in 1890 and, in a letter he wrote, he considered it one of the best and most beautiful in Europe.
In this communication we present a comparative analysis of the different laboratories described in the Fremy's Encyclopaedia and of the Laboratory of the Polytechnic School, with special focus on architectural and functionality aspects.


Bibliography
Fremy, Encyclopédie Chimique, Dunod, Éditeur, Paris, 1882

 

Acnowledgments:
Work financed by Project PTDC/81550/HCT/2006, FCT, Portugal.

 

Isabel Serra, "The research on radioactivity in Portugal and the Institut Curie du Radium"
Resumo: Book of abstracts, p. 555  
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THE RESEARCH ON RADIOACTIVITY IN PORTUGAL

AND THE INSTITUT CURIE DU RADIUM*
Isabel Serra

University of Lisbon, Portugal

 

Between 1925 and 1938 four Portuguese scientists worked in the Institut du Radium, with Marie Curie and her team. These researchers got their PhD in Paris, and there, they published papers in several domains of radioactivity and nuclear physics. Crossing information about those researchers, in the Curie's archives and in the Portuguese ones, it would be possible to clarify some aspects of the collaboration among the Institut du Radium and the foreign scientific institutions like the Portuguese Universities.
Even though all the four Portuguese had a similar scientific beginning at Institut du Radium, their activities and careers were very different after their returning to Portugal. It is important to characterize these differences in order to understand the development of the scientific research in Portugal, as well as the role of the several institutions which participated in that development.
Radioactivity became a prestigious theme of research in the 20's and the Institut du Radium was an international symbol of that research. Perhaps this is why the history of the Portuguese scientific activity in the 20th century is deeply connected with the theme and with the Institute. The scientific life of the four Portuguese researchers who worked in the Institut du Radium would can allow get some conclusions about the evolution of the Portuguese Universities and its relationship with research activity in the 20th century.
In conclusion, the aims of this work are mainly to understand:

  1. The collaboration between the Institut du Radium and the Portuguese institutions of teaching and research.
  2. The role of the research in radioactivity in Portuguese science.
  3. The evolution of the researchers who had been training at the Institut du Radium

Acknowledgments:
We thank the Archives Historiques, Musée Curie, for the possibilities of researching in the relevant archives. This work was financed by Project PTDC/81550/HCT/2006, FCT, Portugal.

 

Pilar Pereira, "École Polytechnique de Paris versus École Polytechnique de Lisbonne "
Resumo: Book of abstracts, p. 573  
(clique para ver resumo)


ÉCOLE POLYTECHNIQUE DE PARIS VERSUS
 ÉCOLE POLYTECHNIQUE DE LISBONNE*
Pilar Pereira

Université de Lisbonne, Portugal

 

Au XIXème siècle l'évolution de l'enseignement en France a eu des répercussions considérables au Portugal, en particulier dans le cas de la formation scientifique, et surtout en ce qui concerne celle des ingénieurs et des ingénieurs-militaires.
Dans ce travail on étudie les ressemblances et les différences entre l'École Polytechnique de Paris, crée par le Ministère de la Défense français en 1794,  et celle de Lisbonne, crée par le Ministère de la Guerre portugais en 1837.
En France, l'enseignement de l'École Polytechnique était conçu pour former les  futurs cadres militaires ou des corps de l'État. Le but de l'École Polytechnique de Lisbonne était  aussi celui de préparer les étudiants pour fréquenter les Écoles de l'Armée et de la Marine, mais les connaissances y acquises  envisageaient, au même temps, une formation supérieure dans plusieurs domaines scientifiques donnant accès au métier d'ingénieur.
 À fin de caractériser les ressemblances des deux Écoles on analysera les manuelles qui ont servi comme modèle dans l'École Polytechnique de Lisbonne, ainsi que plusieurs publications qui continuent à exister dans la Bibliothèque du Musée  des Sciences de l'Université de Lisbonne, telles que les Comptes Rendues, et aussi l'Histoire et Mémoires de l'Académie des    Sciences de Paris, et encore le Journal de l'École Polytechnique.
Dans cet étude on tachera de obtenir des conclusions concernant les affinités des institutions d'enseignement  des deux pays,  ainsi que des ressemblances d'un ordre plus général relatives à l'influence du paradigme français dans la culture scientifique du Portugal.


Remerciements
Ce travail de recherche a été financé par le Projet PTDC/HCT/81550 de la FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia).

 

Isabel Marilia Peres, "Scientific Instruments in the Polytechnic School of Lisbon: the 19th Century Collection of Optical Instruments"
Resumo: Book of abstracts, p. 719  
(clique para ver resumo)


SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS IN POLYTECHNIC SCHOLL OF LISBON:
THE 19TH CENTURY OPTICAL COLLECTION
Isabel Marília Peres

CICTSUL and CCMM, University of Lisbon, Portugal

 

In the reserves of Museum of the Science of the University of Lisbon there are a great number of scientific instruments used in research and teaching in different areas of Physics and Chemistry in 19th and 20th centuries in the Polytechnic School. Among them a balance collection, optical, photographic, spectroscopic, acoustic, heat, pneumatics mechanic, and electrical instruments as well as a large collection of glass equipment can been mentioned. A significant part of those instruments is not yet completely identified and catalogued.
In this work we intend to study a part of these instruments: the optical collection of the 19th century. This work includes a research in Professors textbooks, in catalogues and in the archives of the Polytechnic School, in order to identify them and to trace their history.
History of Science in Portugal, and its Teaching, cannot be approached outside the European scientific context. That's why we endeavoured to get acquainted with that context in the referred period, how it developed and which relations arose between the different characters of this same history: scientists, scientific instrument's manufacturers and teachers. 


References:
Bernardo, L. M. (2007). Histórias da Luz e das Cores, vol. 2, Editora da Universidade do Porto, Porto.
Brenni, P. (1996). "19th Century French Scientific Instrument Makers. XIII: Soleil, Duboscq and their Successors". Bulletin of the Scientific Instruments Society, 51: 10.
Peres, I. M., COSTA, F.,(2006). "Historical Note on Optical Methods and Related Scientific Instruments for Chemistry used by Lisbon Polytechnic School on the Final XIX and Earlier XX Centuries", in Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on History of Chemistry: Chemistry, Technology and Society, Aveiro, pp. 314-322.
Peres, I. M.(2006) "O Ensino da Análise Química Espectral: Um compromisso entre Químicos, Fabricantes de Instrumentos Científicos e Professores", DQB, FCUL (Master Thesis).
Vidal, A. P.(1895). Tratado Elementar de Óptica, Typographia da Academia Real das Ciências, Lisbon.

 

Acnowledgments:
Work financed by Project PTDC/81550/HCT/2006, FCT, Portugal.

 

Francisca Viegas, "The Teaching of Radiochemistry in Portugal"
Resumo: Book of abstracts, p. 567  
(clique para ver resumo)


THE TEACHING OF RADIOCHEMISTRY IN PORTUGAL
Francisca Viegas

Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal

 

The discovery of radioactivity in 1896, influenced many changes in the fields of Physics and Chemistry, mainly regarding atomic theory, and thus affected the teaching of these subjects both at universities and secondary schools.
This communication will try to present an overview of the situation in Portugal.

 

Acnowledgments:
Work financed by Project PTDC/81550/HCT/2006, FCT, Portugal.

 


 2008

 

3rd International Conference of the European Society for the History of Science (ESHS): Styles of Thinking in Science and Technology
Viena, 10-12 de Setembro de 2008

Isabel Serra, "The electron, a main actor in scientific discoveries"
Resumo,  Book of abstracts, p. 47  
(clique para ver resumo)


ELECTRON – A MAIN ACTOR IN SCIENTIFIC CONTROVERSIES
Isabel Serra

Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal

 

The story of the electron can contribute to the study of the continuity-discontinuity of the scientific thinking in modern age, as well as to discuss models and metaphors in history of science. Actually, the electron played a central role in several scientific controversies: nature of electricity and cathode rays, structure and properties of matter.
The idea of an atom of electricity was introduced by Faraday and adopted by Helmholtz. In 1874, Stoney estimated its charge and named it electron. However, Maxwell had stated that a complete knowledge of electricity would eliminate the necessity of such particles. The controversy about the nature of electricity was to lie dormant for years until it was brightened by the study of discharges in gases. The nature of cathode rays divided physicists and chemists, with the electron playing the major role in the dispute. The experiences of Perrin (1895) and Thomson (1897), seemed to confirm the existence of the electron, but did not convince all scientists. The electron became the main protagonist of a controversial image of matter: the atomistic view.
In 1913, Bohr's atomic theory was received with enthusiasm by some physicists but with criticism by others. Nevertheless, the atomic structure of matter gradually wins acceptance in reason of its extraordinary power in predicting spectral lines. At last, electrons were particles, coherent with facts and theories. Some years later, however, with De Broglie's and Schrödinger' works, the electron, from new paradigm becomes an old concept. The complete formulation of quantum mechanics, given by Dirac in 1925, and its interpretation by Bohr, justified that the electron was not a particle anymore. Remarkably, some of the founders of the quantum mechanics preserved a skeptical attitude toward this interpretation. Today the controversy goes on; the electron is again a protagonist.

 

Sources
Bohr, N., Nobel Lecture, 1902, from Nobel Lectures, Physics 1922-1941, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1965.
Faraday, M. (1839), Experimental researches in electricity, London, 1839.
Kuhn, T., The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (U. of Chicago Press, 1962)
Maxwell, J.C. (1873), A treatise on electricity and magnetism, Oxford, 1873.
Helmholtz, H. (1881), "On the modern development of Faraday's conception of electricity", Collected papers (1882-95), vol. III, pp. 53-87.
Lenard, P. Nobel Lecture, 1905, from Nobel Lectures, Physics 1901-1921, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1967
Lorentz, H.A., Nobel Lecture, 1902, from Nobel Lectures, Physics 1901-1921, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1967.
Schuster, A. (1884), "Experiments on the discharge of electricity through gases. Sketch of a theory" (first Bakerian lecture), Royal Society of London, Proceedings, 37 pp. 317-339, 1884.
Stoney, G. J., (1894), Of the "Electron," or Atom of Electricity, Philosophical Magazine, S. 5, 38, pp. 418-420.
Thomson, J.J., Nobel Lecture, 1906, from Nobel Lectures, Physics 1901-1921, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1967.
Whittaker, E., A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity, New York, A.I.P.T., 1987.

 

Acnowledgments:
Work financed by Project PTDC/81550/HCT/2006, FCT, Portugal.

 

Francisca Viegas, "Radioactivity and Portuguese women scientists"
Resumo,  Book of abstracts, p. 159  
(clique para ver resumo)


RADIOACTIVITY AND PORTUGUESE WOMEN SCIENTISTS
Francisca Viegas

Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal
mfviegas@fc.ul.pt

 

Early in the 20th century, Portuguese scientists became interested in radioactivity. Among them, several women played a significant role in its development, researching and teaching the new science, as well as working in its popularisation.
The creation, in 1929, of the National Council for Scientific Research, allowed granting post-graduate scholarships in outstanding centres like Curie's Laboratory. Branca Marques and Manuel Valadares were the first two Portuguese researchers sent to this Laboratory.
When Branca Marques returned to Portugal, in 1936, she founded the Radiochemistry
Laboratory in the Faculty of Sciences of Lisbon where she continued doing research and supervising the work of several students, most of them women.
Manuel Valadares, in Portugal, also continued working on radioactivity. Several women collaborated in his research program. Among them, two assistants at the University, Marieta da Silveira and Lidia Salgueiro obtained the most relevant results, cited in international papers and mentioned in international documents of history of science. Marieta da Silveira studied the absorption of the Uranium X radiation and Lidia Salgueiro worked on X-rays and γ-ray spectroscopy.
When Valadares was dismissed from the University for political reasons, Marieta da Silveira started collaborating with geologists on studies of the radioactivity of uranium minerals. Besides this work, she contributed to the popularization of radioactivity.
The fascination of Portuguese women by radioactivity was given a chance of development in the fifties after the foundation of the Committee for Nuclear Energy Studies. Marieta da Silveira, Branca Marques, as well as other women, collaborated in the research concerning Portuguese uranium minerals.
In conclusion, Portuguese women had a fundamental role in the reception and transmission of knowledge on radioactivity and in the training of scientists on its techniques. During several decades the teaching of radioactivity, in the Faculty of Sciences of Lisbon, involved mainly women.

 

Sources
Beyer, R. T. , ed. Foundations of Nuclear Physics, 1947.
Chamié, C., Faraggi, et Marques, B., « Sur les activités en profondeur de l'Argent irradié par des Deutos », C.R. de l'Ac. Sc. Paris, 229, 358 (1949).
Marques, B., Nouvelles Recherches sur le Fraccionement des Sels de Baryum Radifère, Thèse, s. A, 1585, PUF, Paris, 1935.
Salgueiro, L.,Spectrography of gamma rays emitted by the active deposit in the slow evolution of radon (in French). Portugaliae Physica, I, 67 (1944).
Silveira, M.,Natural Radioactivity by neutron emission (in French) Portugaliae Physica, I, 167 (1945).
Silveira, M., Absortion of gamma rays emitted by U I and its immediate descendants (in French) Portugaliae Physica, I, 151 (1944).
Silveira, M., On the absortion of the gamma radiation emitted by the UX complex (in French) Portugaliae Physica, I, 175 (1945).
Valadares, M. and e Salgueiro L., "Les spectres L et gamma émis par la transmutation RaD→RaE" , Portgal. Phys., 3 (1949), 21.

 

Acnowledgments:
Work financed by Project PTDC/81550/HCT/2006, FCT, Portugal.

 

Elisa Maia, Cristina Alegre, Maria Cruz, Sandra Lopes, Susana Santos, S.,
"History of Chemistry in School Curricula - Activities for Students"

Resumo,  Book of abstracts, p. 172  
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HISTORY OF CHEMISTRY IN SCHOOL CURRICULA: ACTIVITIES FOR STUDENTS
Maria Elisa Maia

Centro Interdisciplinar de Ciência, Tecnologia e Sociedade da Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal

 

In the last decades school curricula for basic and secondary schools have changed in many aspects. Contents were modified, but in particular new approaches have been tried in many places, all over the world. Some new trends correspond to the inclusion of topics on History of Science. However there is a lack of teaching materials available for use by teachers in the classroom. And very seldom any of the materials that can be found includes results of research on History of Science.
In this communication we present examples of teaching modules with activities for students based on research studies related to 19th and early 20th century Chemistry in Portugal. The examples will detail an activity related to an alleged fraud of Port Wines, another suggested by a forensic investigation of a murder, both based on real research works of Ferreira da Silva around 1901, and another one based on the isolation of cichonine, the first quina alkaloid isolated by Bernardino Antonio Gomes in 1842.
All these activities include an historical background on the evolution of Chemistry in Portugal as well as the biographies of the Portuguese chemists referred. The possibility of undertaking some experimental activities is facilitated by the presentation of protocols for simple experiments related to the topics.
Other activities are based on the analysis of the first volumes (1905-1914) of the Revista de Chimica Pura e Applicada, the first Journal of Chemistry in Portugal and exploit the evolution of tables of Atomic Weights and related concepts.
These are only a few examples of how we can integrate topics on History of Chemistry in the curricula, either by using case studies on actual researches undertaken in the past, or looking at the evolution of concepts with the presentation of original texts of papers from different scientists or articles in journals referring the given concepts.

 

Sources
1- Cristina Alegre, "O papel do Laboratório Municipal de Chimica do Porto e de Ferreira da Silva na implementação e Ensino da Química no fim do século XIX", Unpublished Masters' Degree Thesis, University of Lisbon, 2006.
2- Sandra Domingos Lopes, "Alcalóides: Episódios Históricos do Século XIX em Portugal – Apresentação de dois Projectos para o Ensino Secundário", Unpublished Masters' Degree Thesis, University of Lisbon, 2006.
3- Susana Santos, "Contributo da Revista de Chimica Pura e Applicada para o Ensino da
Química na actualidade", Unpublished Masters' Degree Thesis, University of Lisbon, 2005.

 

Acnowledgments:
Work financed by Project PTDC/81550/HCT/2006, FCT, Portugal.